Society 2020-01-28T12:34:59+00:00 Herdiyanti, S.Sos., M.Si. Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Society</strong>, with registered number&nbsp;<strong>ISSN 2338-6932</strong> (Print) and&nbsp;<strong>ISSN 2597-4874</strong> (Online), is a peer-reviewed journal published two times a year (June and December) by Social Engineering Laboratory, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Bangka Belitung. Society is intended to be the journal for publishing articles reporting the results of research on Social Sciences.</p> <p>Society invites manuscripts in the various topics include, but not limited to, Sociology, Social Psychology, Social Work, Social Issues, Social and Cultural Anthropology, Political Sciences, Cultural Studies, Law and Society.</p> <p>Society is accredited by the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia (RISTEKDIKTI), No. 28/E/KPT/2019 (valid until September 26, 2023).</p> Hegemonic Practices of Upperclassmen to Freshmen Within College Life 2020-01-28T12:34:58+00:00 Muhammad Syukur <p>The research aims to explain: 1) Forms of hegemonic practices of upperclassmen to freshmen in college life at the State University of Makassar and 2) Levels of hegemonic practices of upperclassmen to freshmen at the State University of Makassar. This research is qualitative descriptive with snowball sampling technique used to determine the participants which consist of 25 upperclassmen and 20 freshmen class of 2018 and 2019 academic year. Data collection methods included observation, interview and documentation. Data analysis technique consists of three stages, namely: data reduction, data presentation and conclusion drawing. Data verification was conducted through observation perseverance and source and time triangulation. The results show that 1) forms of hegemonic practices of the upperclassmen to freshmen at the State University of Makassar include agreement, domination and intellectual leadership and moral and 2) the level of hegemony conducted by the upperclassmen at the State University of Makassar is in the decadent hegemony level. Relationship between upperclassmen and freshmen is good but only few freshmen who established intimacy. There is an awkwardness between the upperclassmen and the freshmen during interaction. freshmen are active in supporting the upperclassmen in student clubs at the department, faculty as well as university levels. It is because the freshmen feel reluctant if they do not carry out the upperclassmen direction. In addition there is also a sense of compulsion due to sanction used by the upperclassmen.</p> 2019-12-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Entrepreneurial Characteristics and Behaviors of Muntok White Pepper Farmers 2020-01-28T12:34:55+00:00 Rufti Puji Astuti Novyandra Ilham Bahtera Eddy Jajang Jaya Atmaja <p>Entrepreneurship is one of the human capital variables of pepper farmers that plays an important role in determining the success of pepper agribusiness development in this creative era. To face the challenges of the business climate change, pepper farmers need entrepreneurship. The objectives compiled in this study are to identify the entrepreneurial characteristics of Muntok White Pepper farmers and to analyze the effect of entrepreneurial characteristics on their entrepreneurial behavior in managing to farm. The study was conducted by survey method, involving 115 farmers. Data analysis used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with Partial Least Squares (PLS). The results showed that the entrepreneurial characteristics of pepper farmers are risk-taking, responsive to opportunities, innovative, and motivated. Also, the results showed that the entrepreneurial characteristics of pepper farmers positively and significantly influence their entrepreneurial behavior. Furthermore, the most dominant variable reflecting their entrepreneurial characteristics is the courage to take risks. This study recommends muntok pepper farmers that they always dare to take risks, be persistent and disciplined. Additionally, knowledge and skills need to be constantly updated to grow the ability to innovate and be creative in carrying pepper cultivation activities out.</p> 2019-12-20T07:19:31+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Social Mapping of Fishermen Resource and Accessibility for Coastal Tourism Development Policy 2020-01-28T12:34:51+00:00 Evi Sukmayeti <p>Many fishermen in Indonesia have not fully utilized marine resources properly. However, the government has several ways to improve the welfare of fishermen in other sectors than the fisheries; one of them is connecting between fishermen, coastal and tourism. Meninting of West Lombok is a strategic coastal village for the tourism sector. This village has started to develop tourist destinations since 2011, unfortunately, there is no data on fishermen as a real interest group. This study develops a research pattern on fishing communities which generally discusses the social resources of fishermen and the political aspects of fishing communities separately. This study used a qualitative approach to the social mapping method. Data obtained through interviews and observations of purposively selected informants. The data related to fishermen resources are in maps, followed by an analysis of their accessibility to policy. Spatial aspects strengthen their social resources, interests, and accessibilities to coastal tourism development. The results show that the social resources of fishermen of Meninting Village are unevenly distributed in five dusun (sub-villages). Indicators shown are; capital ownership, mastery of knowledge and skills, ownership of production equipment, use of science and technology, ability to diversify production, fishermen's sociopolitical relations and ability to recognize the economic prospects of coastal tourism. Fishermen who live in areas directly facing the sea have better social resources and firmer interests in coastal development. The accessibility of fishing groups is limited in the development policy. Only fishermen in sub-village located in a coastal area can show themselves as defenders. While the fishermen who live far from the beach tend to be latent or even apathetic. This study recommends the need for other social mapping studies on the characteristics of coastal communities and the need for the government to use the social mapping information of fishing communities to formulate policies that contain regional aspects in coastal tourism development.</p> 2019-12-25T13:58:53+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Childless Couple Efforts to Harmonize Their Marital Relationships 2020-01-28T12:34:48+00:00 Abdul Malik Iskandar Hasanuddin Kasim Harifuddin Halim <p>This research is to reveal (1) the childless couple's efforts to harmonize their marital relationships, (2) the efforts against stigma related to childless couples. This research is a quantitative descriptive using a survey approach. This research was conducted in East Pantar District, Alor Regency, East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) Province, Indonesia. The respondents were determined by using total sampling. Data collection techniques were carried out through questionnaires, interviews, and literature studies. Data were analyzed quantitatively using frequency tabulation and Likert Scale. The results showed that (1) The efforts to harmonize the marital relationships of childless couples are (a) internal efforts by strengthening communication and cooperation with a partner; (b) couples receive external support. (2) Efforts against stigma are (a) having positive thinking, (b) avoiding conflict, (c) avoiding sensitive talk. Based on the indicators, there were ten respondents' efforts to harmonize their marital relationships. This condition makes married couples have power and deal with the social stigma about them. The conclusion is that married couples make various efforts to harmonize their marital relationships and still hope to have children in their marriage life.</p> 2019-12-27T16:19:47+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fatalism and Poverty in Fishing Communities 2020-01-28T12:34:43+00:00 Maksud Hakim <p>This study aims to reveal the fatalistic work culture process as a cause of poverty for fishermen. As part of an urgent cultural aspect, Fatalism has been an inseparable part of their social life. Fatalism is an attitude that has been a stronghold for a long time and becomes a habit. In this case, the most important thing to express is the belief or trust of fishermen related to the coastal environment. This research took place on the southern coast of the Sulawesi Island, in Pandang-Pandang village, Arungkeke District, Jeneponto Regency, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. The informants were 5 poor fishermen from the Sawi (fishing boat crew) who were interviewed in-depth and conducted observation of the surrounding environment. To strengthen research data, Literature studies, interview and observation results were also conducted. Data analysis used three path techniques including data reduction, categorization, and conclusion drawing. This research shows that; (1) The fatalistic attitude of the fishing community of Pandang-Pandang village manifested in the belief that life has been determined by God while humans only live and accept it, (2) Weak instrumental values ​​of the fishing community in the form of not overly pursuing more values ​​at work. Both of these are fatalistic attitudes. The conclusion of this research is the emergence of a fatalistic attitude in the fishing community is the result of their appreciation of God, Nature, Humans, and Life. This appreciation has been going on for a long time so that it is manifested in the form of an attitude of life than becoming an actor.</p> 2019-12-29T16:07:13+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Accommodating Religious Practices in the Workplace: The Case of Indonesian Workers in Taiwan 2020-01-28T12:34:42+00:00 Rizki Hegia Sampurna <p>The increasing number of Indonesian migrant workers, who are largely Muslims in Taiwan, makes the work environment more diverse. Consequently, the need for diversity management programs such as accommodating religious practices in the workplace has become significantly more relevant. But the extant studies and reports point out those migrant workers, who are largely Muslims, have not been properly accommodated to implement their religious practices in the workplace. The study seeks to understand as how Indonesian migrant workers, who are largely Muslims, experience a kind of deprivation of their religious practices in the workplace. To that end, it uses a qualitative case study method to investigate a group of Indonesian Muslim workers of the X Company who were deprived to observe daily prayers in the workplace. The results of the study evidently found that the employer views that accommodation of such religious practices in the workplace as unreasonable for the company. The results further showed that the accommodation of religious practices of Indonesian Muslim workers was considered as unreasonable because of some important issues such as disruption of job duty, inflexible work schedule, other workers’ concern/objection, facility cost and management response/ approach. Accordingly, the study suggests some recommendations. First, the Taiwanese employer needs to sit together with relevant government institutions and religious leaders to formulate a specific policy on the accommodation of religious practices in the workplace. Second, as a single case study, the results of this study might lack of external validity (generalizability). It therefore strongly suggests prospective researchers to do a cross-cases study of this phenomenon or issue.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Process of Migration and Communication Technology Roles among Labor Migrants in Batam - Indonesia 2020-01-28T12:34:41+00:00 Inayah Hidayati <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This research explains the roles of communication technology on the migration process of labor migrants in Batam, Indonesia. Differences between places are strong reasons for people to migrate. The advances in communication technology have freed up opportunities for people to migrate. Technology has made it more accessible for migrants to raise links to their next destination through the internet. Interactions within communication technology make migration easier by decreasing the expenses and risks of moving. The explanations in this study are to understand the communication technology for the migrating process and calculate the social networks of migrants. This research applied mixed methods to explore the migration process with data collected included quantitative data from a survey with 500 respondents and supported by qualitative data from in-depth interviews. The results: 1) Communication technology helps migrants in the migration process, especially for searching for information about the destination area. 2) The migrant who uses communication technology has a strong social network and less risk of migration. The role of communication technology in the migration's processes is as a tool to maintain social ties of migrants, migrant uses their social media to make contact and gain information about their destination. This study related to SDGs' target number 10.7 which facilitates orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies, communications technology facilitate safe and well-managed migration.</span></p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Domain Dimension of Family Relationships in the South of Johor through the Family Well-Being Index 2017 2020-01-28T12:34:33+00:00 Siti Sarawati Johar <p>Family institutions are fundamental units of social importance in the process of human development, construction, and development, through the capacity of human capital formation. Physical development alone is meaningless if it is not accompanied by human development based on its natural nature. It is impossible to deal with internal conflicts and to challenge current family institutions because families cannot handle progressive social and economic development processes with simplicity and balance in the family. For example, when there is a disruption in family interaction, there is a loss of family relationships and non-compliance with the value system. Therefore, efforts to balance the demands of social and economic development must be consistent with strengthening relationships within family institutions, as emphasized in the Family Well-Being Index through the Family Relationships dimension. This effort is in line with the desire to create prosperity in family institutions which involves developing individuals and families in a balanced and holistic manner physically, spiritually, economically, socially and mentally. In line with that, a study aimed at testing the Family Well-Being Index was conducted on 319 respondents representing their families in the Pasir Gudang district, Johor Bahru, Malaysia, in 2017. For discussions in this study, the focus would be on the family relationships dimension in terms of Motivational Support, Togetherness, and Curiosity. Overall study findings indicate that the Family Well-Being Index for the Family Relationships dimension is at an excellent level, thus providing relevant interpretations of positive perceptions and practices among study respondents, through testing the Family Relationships domain in three main dimensions.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Symbolic Interaction Analysis of Waria (Transgender Women) in Makassar - Eastern Indonesia 2020-01-28T12:34:36+00:00 Kurniati Abidin Yusuf Djabbar <p>Transgender women (in Indonesia known as <em>Waria</em>) still experience social stigma and exclusion in society. This phenomenon is interesting to study because it is related to the existence of transgender women in dealing with stigma and social exclusion. This study aims to describe the way transgender women perceive social exclusion and to describe the construction of their knowledge which, despite facing social exclusion, still maintains their existence. This study used a qualitative-phenomenological study method, using a purposive sampling technique. Data collection was done by conducting observations, in-depth interviews, and documentation. Data were analyzed using qualitative descriptive using symbolic interaction theory. The results showed that transgender women perceive the stigma and social exclusion they faced was manifested by planned actions in the form of conditional neglect and delay in introducing their existence. They respond to social situations they face with adaptive and not frontal. Transgender women's knowledge construction to maintain their existence is passed through four stages, namely impulse, perception, manipulation, and completion.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Malay Political Tradition: The Appointment and Succession Analysis of The Sultanate of Palembang Darussalam 2020-01-28T12:34:39+00:00 Mohammad Syawaludin Muhammad Sirajudin Fikri Yulion Zalpa <p>This study aims to determine and explore how Islam and Malay as an intertwined entity influence the formation of political institutions in the Sultanate of Palembang, especially influencing the appointment and succession of the Sultan. This study is the result of qualitative research based on a literature review using interpretive analysis techniques. In the practice of Islam in Indonesia, cultural values ​​of non-Islamic religions are maintained and practiced by Islamic entities such as practices in the replacement of the King and Sultan. A theoretical approach to society by looking at the evolution of kings approached to explain the history of state administration and the transition of power, combined with Elite; Political Culture, and Cultural Politics. The results of this study found that the system of appointment and change of power in the Sultanate of Palembang, namely the existence of its characteristics associated with a blend of Malay and Javanese culture. Differences in political culture greatly influence the process of succession that occurs. Malay culture which emphasizes more on its economy in the maritime field and Arabic symbols will be different from Javanese culture which is more agrarian and syncretic.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Determinant Factors of Entrepreneurial Spirits among the Minangkabau Migrant Merchants 2020-01-28T12:34:37+00:00 Hendra Cipta <p>This research aims to reveal the dominant factors of Minangkabau (the ethnic group native to the highlands of West Sumatra, Indonesia) migrants mainly engaged in merchandise. The Minangkabau hold firmly their customs and traditions which founded upon Islamic law as described in the saying “adat basandi syara’; syara’ basandi kitabullah” (tradition founded upon Islamic law, Islamic law founded upon the Holy Quran). This research was conducted in Ipuh sub-sub-district, Bengkulu province, Indonesia, those 150 respondents of Minangkabau merchants as the samples. The location was selected due to Ipuh sub-district is located near West Sumatra borders, so that the tradition strongly influence the Minang migrant merchants. To answer the research questions, the variables used were independent and dependent. The independent variable is the entrepreneurial spirit, while, the dependent variable is economic factors, adat (in this case, the term used is tradition), descendant, education, and independence. The research used a quantitative method by using multiple linear regressions. The result found that cultural variables influence the entrepreneurial spirits of Minangkabau merchant migrants because they uphold their traditions wherever they are. The insignificant influence of education, economic factor, heredity, and independence are insignificant. To conclude, matrilineal tradition has influenced the entrepreneurial spirits of Minang merchants and the matrilineal tradition can increase entrepreneurs among women.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Roles of Ulama in the process of Post-Conflict Reconciliation in Aceh 2020-01-28T12:34:40+00:00 Muhammad Sahlan Suci Fajarni Siti Ikramatoun Ade Ikhsan Kamil Iromi Ilham <p>In the context of Aceh, the word “Ulama" refers to an Islamic scholar who own boarding school (In Aceh language known as Dayah) or a leader of an Islamic boarding school (known as Teungku Dayah). Ulama become "the backbone" of any social problem and play strategic and influential roles in Acehnese society. However, The Ulama roles have changed in the post-conflict era in Aceh. The assumption that Ulama are unable running their authorities in Acehnese society especially in the post-conflict era. Ideally, their roles are needed in the reconciliation regarding the agents of reconciliation who have authority like the Ulama and are trustworthy by Acehnese society. Therefore, this article aims to discuss the position of Ulama in the process of post-conflict reconciliation in Aceh. To investigate the problem, a descriptive qualitative method was used, where the method is to describe the nature of a temporary situation that occurs when the research is carried out in detail, and then the causes of the symptoms were examined. The data were literature studies, participatory observation, and in-depth interviews. The results of this research showed that during an important period of Aceh's history, the Ulama constantly become guardians that provide a religious ethical foundation for each socio-political change in Aceh, and subsequently they also act as the successor to the religious style that developed in the society. Even the formation and development of the socio-political and cultural system occurred partly on the contribution of the Ulama. The position of Ulama in the process of post-conflict reconciliation in Aceh can be found in four ways. Firstly, knowledge transmission. Secondly, as a legal decision-maker which refers to Sharia law, especially related to the reconciliation process. Thirdly, as a mediator. Fourthly, cultural roles in the form of ritual or ceremonial guides that are carried out when the parties of the conflict have met an agreement to reconcile.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Empowerment of Households towards Independence through Social Capital in Program Keluarga Harapan (PKH) 2020-01-28T12:34:35+00:00 Widia Lestari Drajat Tri Kartono Argyo Demartoto Khabib Bima Setiyawan <p>This article aims to reveal 1) The Role of Program Keluarga Harapan or known as PKH (Family of Hope Program) in empowering beneficiary households or known as KPM (Keluarga Penerima Manfaat), 2) The Role of Social Capital in realizing the independence of KPM-PKH in Sukoharjo district, Central Java Province, Indonesia. This research is qualitative by using a case study approach. The determination of informants used a purposive sampling technique. The informants were eight beneficiary households and four key informants they were the Head of Sukoharjo district office of the Ministry of Social Services, coordinator of Sukoharjo district, PKH supervisor, PKH facilitator, and two key informants to support any information. Data were collected through observation, interviews, and documentation. The data were analyzed into three stages; data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing. The data were verified by observation and source triangulation and time. The result showed that 1) The Role of PKH in empowering the beneficiary households by providing social assistance, strengthening by the regular meeting of Family Development Session, known as P2K2 (Pertemuan Peningkatan Kemampuan Keluarga), strengthening by PKH cooperative, and joint business group, known as KUBE (Kelompok Usaha Bersama), 2) The Role of social capital to build independence of KPM-PKH by adopting cultural values, trust, reciprocity, participation, communication system, and venture networks of beneficiary households. This is caused by the relevance of social bonding, social bridging and social linking carried out by KPM-PKH. To conclude, livelihoods choice of KPM-PKH by employing social capital becomes strategic and productive opportunities to empower independence among poor households as beneficiary of PKH.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Émigré Creativity in a Historical Context 2020-01-28T12:34:59+00:00 Homam Altabaa Adham Hamawiya <p>Émigré writers such as Kahlil Gibran and Mikhail Naimy proved that it is possible to transcend their historical limitations to become leading literary figures. An examination of the historical context of these writers is important for a rich understanding of their works. The themes addressed in such literary works are better appreciated within their cultural environment, and not as objects detached from their times, author and readers<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1">[1]</a>. It can be rightfully argued that such works cannot be fully appreciated without delving into the intricacies of the political ideologies and economic crises of previous centuries. This article does not aim to perform such an undertaking, regardless of its literary merit; however, it presents an overview of the historical context surrounding the Émigré literary movement as a product of two cultures bridged by immigration at the turn of the 20<sup>th</sup> century. This is based on the belief that a profound critical engagement with Émigré works is better achieved with an examination of their historical and literary background. Thus, this article serves as a foundation for profound literary analyses of Émigré works.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1">[1]</a> Payne, 2005 : 3-4, on the importance of a historical context.</p> 2019-12-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Internal Conflict Resolution between Government of Indonesia and Separatist Movement in Papua using Horse-Trading Mechanism 2020-01-28T12:34:57+00:00 Sekar Wulan Febrianti Ajeng Sekar Arum Windy Dermawan Akim Akim <p>The study aims to analyze the process of internal conflict resolution between the Government of Indonesia and the separatist movement in Papua (Free Papua Movement (Indonesian: Organisasi Papua Merdeka or OPM)) using a horse-trading mechanism. This study was qualitative method by discussing the Free Papua Movement background and the conflict, then discussing the conflict process of timeline analysis tool to understand the development of its movement based on chronological order, and discussing the conflict resolutions that have been carried out with conflict mapping analysis tool to understand the actors that involved and their objectives. The conflict is the result of complexity among historical backgrounds, ideology, and a sense of injustice in Papua, on the other hand, the international community has increasingly supported Papua. Horse-trading has been used to resolve the conflict of Free Papua Movement and the Government of Indonesia, yet it has not yet reached a new resolution. The horse-trading mechanism effectively resolves the conflict when trust has been achieved between them to communicate both of them where they can deliver their objectives openly.</p> 2019-12-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##