Enhancing Comprehensive Mastery of Qualitative Research Methodology for Students Through the Deconstruction of the Eid al-Fitr Greeting Model
Society Volume 11 Issue 2#2023
PDF (English)
PDF (Bahasa Indonesia)


Comprehensive Mastery;
Multidimensional Learning;
Qualitative Research Methodology;
Real-World Problem-Based Design

View Counter

  • Abstract viewed - 311 times
  • PDF (English) downloaded - 120 times
  • PDF (Bahasa Indonesia) downloaded - 127 times

Search in:

| |

How to Cite

Haryono, B., Sudarmo, S., Triyanto, T., & Mahadika, B. (2023). Enhancing Comprehensive Mastery of Qualitative Research Methodology for Students Through the Deconstruction of the Eid al-Fitr Greeting Model. Society, 11(2), 288-309. https://doi.org/10.33019/society.v11i2.399


This quasi-experimental study aims to enhance the Mastery of Comprehensive Qualitative Research Methodology (MCQRM) among Sociology students. The goal is to equip students with systematic thinking steps involving philosophy, paradigm, object of study, theory, method, statistics, case examples, and addressing real problems and solutions. The research adopts a deconstruction approach, using the model of Eid al-Fitr greetings as its substance. The participants are 26 Sociology students enrolled in the Qualitative Research Method course. Data was collected through surveys using Google Forms twice during sessions from the 9th to the 15th meeting. Responses from the first form were compared with those from the second form. The differences between them were then interpreted as indicators of changes in the mastery of comprehensive thinking steps resulting from the learning treatment. The data were analyzed using analytical descriptive statistics in SPSS software. The results show a significant improvement in the overall mastery of qualitative research methodology, with a positive change of 30.8%. Improvement is also evident in method mastery at 38.5% and statistical mastery at 11.5%. The students successfully construct comprehensive thinking steps, ranging from post-positivism philosophy to the application of social definition and social behavior paradigms. They can understand the object of sociological study in cognitive, affective, and psychomotor dimensions, integrating Action and Social Exchange theories, Qualitative Research Methods, and descriptive statistics. Through this understanding, students can present a fluent thought process from various philosophical perspectives and in solving real-world problems.

DOI : https://doi.org/10.33019/society.v11i2.399
PDF (English)
PDF (Bahasa Indonesia)


Akbar, M. A., & Handriani, I. (2018). Study and Implementation Information System of Zakat using MVC Architecture. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 453(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/453/1/012032

Akli, F. M. (2015). Sociological Research in Algeria: Between Theoretical Language and Social Reality. In Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences (Vol. 185, pp. 352–356). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.03.437

Aledo-Tur, A., & Domínguez-Gómez, J. A. (2017). Social Impact Assessment (SIA) from a multidimensional paradigmatic perspective: Challenges and opportunities. Journal of Environmental Management, 195, 56–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.10.060

Andersen, I., Buch, R., & Kuvaas, B. (2020). A Literature Review of Social and Economic Leader–Member Exchange. Frontiers in Psychology, 11(July), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01474

Anglin, S. M. (2014). I think, therefore I am? Examining conceptions of the self, soul, and mind. Consciousness and Cognition, 29, 105–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2014.08.014

Barani, G., Azma, F., & Seyyedrezai, S. H. (2011). Quality indicators of hidden curriculum in centers of higher education. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 1657–1661. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.321

Baumann, R., Dvořák, W., Linsbichler, T., Spanring, C., Strass, H., & Woltran, S. (2016). On rejected arguments and implicit conflicts: The hidden power of argumentation semantics. Artificial Intelligence, 241, 244–284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.artint.2016.09.004

Baumeister, R. F. (2008). Social reality and the hole in determinism. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 18(1), 34–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2007.10.007

Beckert, J., & Suckert, L. (2021). The future as a social fact. The analysis of perceptions of the future in sociology. Poetics, 84(December 2018), 101499. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.poetic.2020.101499

Bell, S. K., Wideroff, M., & Gaufberg, L. (2010). Student voices in Readers’ Theater: Exploring communication in the hidden curriculum. Patient Education and Counseling, 80(3), 354–357. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2010.07.024

Bendeck, S., Greenwood, I. D., Kadyan, S., Tuttle, R., Weeks, N., & Unnithan, N. P. (2018). In the Trenches: Teaching and Learning Sociology. The Social Science Journal, 55(3), 379–380. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soscij.2018.06.004

Biklen, S. K. (2010). The quality of evidence in qualitative research. International Encyclopedia of Education, 488–497. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-044894-7.01559-1

Bilsker, D. (1992). An existentialist account of identity formation. Journal of Adolescence, 15(2), 177–192. https://doi.org/10.1016/0140-1971(92)90046-8

Borges, J. C., Ferreira, T. C., Borges de Oliveira, M. S., Macini, N., & Caldana, A. C. F. (2017). Hidden curriculum in student organizations: Learning, practice, socialization and responsible management in a business school. International Journal of Management Education, 15(2), 153–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijme.2017.03.003

Boudon, R. (2001a). Action, Theories of Social. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 77(2), 54–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/b0-08-043076-7/01819-2

Boudon, R. (2001b). Sociology: Overview. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 14581–14585. https://doi.org/10.1016/b0-08-043076-7/01968-9

Brame, C. J. (2019). Spotlight 1. Writing Learning Objectives Using Bloom’s Taxonomy. In Science Teaching Essentials (pp. 29–34). https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-814702-3.00025-1

Brant-Zawadzki, M. (2013). Being and nothingness. Journal of the American College of Radiology, 10(1), 4–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2012.07.006

Broks, P. (2006). What is consciousness? New Scientist, 192(2578), 56–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0262-4079(06)61127-5

Brooks, M. (2011). How do I know I exist? New Scientist, 211(2822), 36. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0262-4079(11)61774-0

Browne, C. (2015). Change is Central to Sociology. In Change!: Combining Analytic Approaches with Street Wisdom. ANU Press. https://doi.org/10.22459/ccaasw.07.2015.05

Bulgaru, I. (2013a). Emile Durkheim’s Sociological Thinking Evolution from a Pedagogical Perspective. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 76, 262–266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.04.110

Bulgaru, I. (2013b). Emile Durkheim’s Work from Romanian Social Pedagogical Perspective. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 76, 135–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.04.087

Bunge, M. (2015). Sociology, Epistemology of. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition (Second Edi, Vol. 22). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.32146-8

Cáceres, M., Nussbaum, M., & Ortiz, J. (2020). Integrating critical thinking into the classroom: A teacher’s perspective. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 37(May), 100674. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2020.100674

Caponigri, A. R. (1959). Dialectical Materialism. Philosophical Studies, 9(0), 152–155. https://doi.org/10.5840/philstudies19599029

Chatterjee, A., Gupta, U., Chinnakotla, M. K., Srikanth, R., Galley, M., & Agrawal, P. (2019). Understanding Emotions in Text Using Deep Learning and Big Data. Computers in Human Behavior, 93, 309–317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.12.029

Civitillo, S., Juang, L. P., & Schachner, M. K. (2018). Challenging beliefs about cultural diversity in education: A synthesis and critical review of trainings with pre-service teachers. Educational Research Review, 24, 67–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2018.01.003

Cook, K. S. (2015). Exchange: Social. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition (Second Edi, Vol. 8). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.32056-6

Cristofaro, M. (2020). “I feel and think, therefore I am”: An Affect-Cognitive Theory of management decisions. European Management Journal, 38(2), 344–355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2019.09.003

Crothers, C. (2015). Sociological Traditions. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition (Second Edi, Vol. 23). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.32161-4

Cuthbertson, L. M., Robb, Y. A., & Blair, S. (2020). Theory and application of research principles and philosophical underpinning for a study utilising interpretative phenomenological analysis. Radiography, 26(2), e94–e102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radi.2019.11.092

Cynarski, W. J. (2014). The New Paradigm of Science Suitable for the 21st Century. In Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences (Vol. 149, pp. 269–275). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.08.228

D. Anthony Miles. (2017). A taxonomy of research gaps: Identifying and defining the seven research gaps. Journal of Research Methods and Strategies, 2017, 1–15.

Davis, D. H. J. (2004). Dementia: Sociological and philosophical constructions. Social Science and Medicine, 58(2), 369–378. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00202-8

Dearden, R. F., Hirst, P. H., & Peters, R. S. (2009). Education and the development of reason. In R. F. Dearden, P. H. Hirst, & R. S. Peters (Eds.), Education and the Development of Reason (Vol. 8). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203861165

Delgado-Hito, P., & Romero-García, M. (2021). Elaboration of a research project using qualitative methodology. Enfermería Intensiva (English Ed.), 32(3), 164–169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enfie.2021.03.001

Fararo, T. J. (2001). Theory: Sociological. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 15656–15662. https://doi.org/10.1016/b0-08-043076-7/01981-1

Febriyanti, N. P. V., & Dewi, M. H. N. (2017). Pengaruh Faktor Sosial Ekonomi dan Demografi terhadap Keputusan Perempuan Menikah Muda Di Indonesia. Piramida Jurnal Kependudukan Dan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia, 13(2), 108–117.

Garcia, J. H., & Wei, J. (2013). Environment for Development On Social Sanctions and Beliefs.

Gil-Hernández, C. J., Marqués-Perales, I., & Fachelli, S. (2017). Intergenerational social mobility in Spain between 1956 and 2011: The role of educational expansion and economic modernisation in a late industrialised country. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 51(April 2016), 14–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rssm.2017.06.002

Goodman, V. D. (2011). A brief overview of qualitative research. Qualitative Research and the Modern Library, 7–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-1-84334-644-9.50001-9

Hannikainen, I. R., Machery, E., & Cushman, F. A. (2018). Is utilitarian sacrifice becoming more morally permissible? Cognition, 170(July 2017), 95–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2017.09.013

Haryono, B. (1986). Pengaruh penghargaan Status yang bersifat Kebendaan terhadap Perilaku Konsumtif Ibu Rumahtangga di perumahan Kota.

Haryono, B. (2013). Estimasi Parameter Integrasi Sosial Suku Tionghoa-Jawa Di Yogyakarta Dan Surakarta: Pengembangan Hybrid Model. Jurnal Penelitian Dan Evaluasi Pendidikan, 15(2), 287–307. https://doi.org/10.21831/pep.v15i2.1098

Haryono, B. (2019). The Relationship Among The Religiosity Level Of The Student, Attitude And Their Activities. 1(August), 79.

Haryono, B., Sudarmo, Istiqomah, N., Hajar, N. A., & Febriana, M. (2020). Social Exchange: Reward and Punishment in Bridal Shower. International Journal of Education and Social Science Research, 3(4), 152–157. https://doi.org/10.37500/ijessr.2020.30414

Haryono, B., & Zuber, A. (2018a). Democratic Efforts Against Injustice - The Process of Transforming Consciousness Into Participatory Action. 4th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SCIENCES, 1(IcoSaPS), 1–1. https://doi.org/10.5220/0007033400010001

Haryono, B., & Zuber, A. (2018b). The Impact of the Learning Process on the Level of the Student Idealism at the Materialism and Pragmatism Eras. 1(Icse 2017), 205–209. https://doi.org/10.5220/0007095502050209

Heaphy, L. (2020). Social Studies of Scientific Knowledge. In International Encyclopedia of Human Geography (Second Edi, Vol. 12). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-08-102295-5.10703-6

Held, C. (2006). Mental models as objectual representations. In Advances in Psychology (Vol. 138, Issue 1). Elsevier Masson SAS. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4115(06)80038-5

Hinrichs, U., Carpendale, S., Knudsen, S., & Thudt, A. (2017). Analyzing qualitative data. Proceedings of the 2017 ACM International Conference on Interactive Surfaces and Spaces, ISS 2017, 477–481. https://doi.org/10.1145/3132272.3135087

Hogan, P. (2010). Reason and rationality. International Encyclopedia of Education, 183–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-044894-7.00592-3

Hollis, M. (2009). Rational choice. The Cunning of Reason, 15–28. https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511621161.003

Hosen, N. (2012). Hilal and Halal: How to manage islamic pluralism in Indonesia? Asian Journal of Comparative Law, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.1515/1932-0205.1418

Howard, P. B., Williams, T. E., El-Mallakh, P., Melander, S., Tharp-Barrie, K., Lock, S., & MacCallum, T. (2020). An innovative teaching model in an academic-practice partnership for a Doctor of Nursing Practice program. Journal of Professional Nursing, April, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2020.04.010

Insriani, H. (2013). Pembelajaran Sosiologi Yang Menggugah Minat Siswa. KOMUNITAS: International Journal of Indonesian Society and Culture, 3(1), 92–102. https://doi.org/10.15294/komunitas.v3i1.2300

Ioana, N., & Marin, S. (2014). Romanian Language, Literature and Educational System under the Sign of “the Sociological Concept of Language.” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 137, 170–176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.05.271

Iqbal, T., & Qureshi, S. (2020). The survey: Text generation models in deep learning. Journal of King Saud University - Computer and Information Sciences, xxxx, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksuci.2020.04.001

Irianto, A. (2007). Statistik Konsep Dasar dan Aplikasinya. Kencana.

Jia, X., Chowdhury, M., Prayag, G., & Hossan Chowdhury, M. M. (2020). The role of social capital on proactive and reactive resilience of organizations post-disaster. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 48(April), 101614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101614

Jones, R. (1998). Philosophy since the Enlightenment. http://www.philosopher.org.uk/phil.htm

Jones, T. C. (1992). Understanding management accountants: The rationality of social action. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 3(3), 225–257. https://doi.org/10.1016/1045-2354(92)90003-A

Julnes, G. (2015). Realism, in Applied Research. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition (Second Edi, Vol. 20, Issue 1). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.10559-8

Kalenda, J., & Schwartzhoff, S. (2015). Cultural Sociology: A New Approach to the Study of the History of Education. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174, 3055–3062. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.1098

Kamenica, E., Naclerio, R., & Malani, A. (2013). Advertisements impact the physiological efficacy of a branded drug. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(32), 12931–12935. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1012818110

Kao, C. yao. (2014). Exploring the relationships between analogical, analytical, and creative thinking. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 13, 80–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2014.03.006

Koppl, R., & Whitman, D. G. (2004). Rational-choice hermeneutics. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 55(3), 295–317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2003.07.006

Krau, S. D. (2011). Creating Educational Objectives for Patient Education Using the New Bloom’s Taxonomy. Nursing Clinics of North America, 46(3), 299–312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cnur.2011.05.002

Krau, S. D. (2019). I Think, Therefore I Am. Nursing Clinics of North America, 54(3), xiii–xiv. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cnur.2019.06.001

Kumpas-Lenk, K., Eisenschmidt, E., & Veispak, A. (2018). Does the design of learning outcomes matter from students’ perspective? Studies in Educational Evaluation, 59, 179–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2018.07.008

Laird, R. D., Marks, L. D., & Marrero, M. D. (2011). Religiosity, self-control, and antisocial behavior: Religiosity as a promotive and protective factor. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 32(2), 78–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2010.12.003

Lee, E., Kang, M., Song, J., & Kang, M. (2020). From intention to action: Habits, feedback and optimizing energy consumption in South Korea. Energy Research and Social Science, 64(June 2019), 101430. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2020.101430

Levering, B. (2010). Phenomenology and existentialism. International Encyclopedia of Education, 80–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-044894-7.00564-9

Listiaji, P., & Subhan, S. (2021). Pengaruh Pembelajaran Literasi Digital Pada Kompetensi Teknologi Informasi Dan Komunikasi (Tik) Calon Guru. Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Kebudayaan, 6(1), 107–116. https://doi.org/10.24832/jpnk.v6i1.1948

Liu, H. (2014). Philosophical reflections on data. Procedia Computer Science, 30, 60–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2014.05.381

Lively, K. J. (2015). Emotions, Sociology of. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition (Second Edi, Vol. 7). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.32143-2

Lowe, A. (2004). Methodology choices and the construction of facts: Some implications from the sociology of scientific knowledge. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 15(2), 207–231. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1045-2354(03)00067-4

Lubis, T., Ramlan, Dardanila, Hasrul, S., Nasution, T., & Abus, A. F. (2022). The peunajoh toward conservation of flora and fauna biodiversity in Aceh. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 977(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/977/1/012099

Luthfiana, N. A., & Hadi, S. P. (2019). Pengaruh Promosi Penjualan dan E-service Quality Terhadap Minat Beli Ulang (Studi pada Pembeli di Marketplace Shopee). Jurnal Administrasi Bisnis, 8(1), 37. https://doi.org/10.14710/jab.v8i1.23767

Lyons, A. (2020). Negotiating the expertise paradox in new mothers’ WhatsApp group interactions. Discourse, Context and Media, 37, 100427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcm.2020.100427

Manolescu, M. (2015). Conceptual, Curricular and Paradigmatic Inconsistencies in the Romanian Pedagogical Theory and Practice. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 180(November 2014), 647–652. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.02.173

Moen, K., & Middelthon, A. L. (2015). Qualitative Research Methods. In Research in Medical and Biological Sciences: From Planning and Preparation to Grant Application and Publication. Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-799943-2.00010-0

Molm, L. D. (2014). Experiments on Exchange Relations and Exchange Networks in Sociology. In Laboratory Experiments in the Social Sciences: Second Edition (Second Edi). Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-404681-8.00009-1

Morris, A. S., & Langari, R. (2021). Statistical analysis of measurements subject to random errors. In Measurement and Instrumentation. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-817141-7.00004-9

Nasr, S. H. (2013). Harmony of Heaven, Earth and Man—Harmony of Civilizations. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 77, 10–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.03.056

Nasruddin, R., & Haq, I. (2020). Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar (PSBB) dan Masyarakat Berpenghasilan Rendah. SALAM: Jurnal Sosial Dan Budaya Syar-I, 7(7). https://doi.org/10.15408/sjsbs.v7i7.15569

Niemi, W. L. (2011). Karl Marx’s sociological theory of democracy: Civil society and political rights. Social Science Journal, 48(1), 39–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soscij.2010.07.002

Ningsih, S., Haryono, B., & Demartoto, A. (2019). Work Ethos and Religion Implementation in Supporting Business Existence in Metal Craftsmen in Cepogo Village of Boyolali Indonesia. 1(Icps), 786–789. https://doi.org/10.5220/0007551407860789

Nunkoo, R., & Ramkissoon, H. (2012). Power, trust, social exchange and community support. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(2), 997–1023. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2011.11.017

Östlund, U., Kidd, L., Wengström, Y., & Rowa-Dewar, N. (2011). Combining qualitative and quantitative research within mixed method research designs: A methodological review. In International Journal of Nursing Studies (Vol. 48, Issue 3, pp. 369–383). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2010.10.005

Pande, M., & Bharathi, S. V. (2020). Theoretical foundations of design thinking – A constructivism learning approach to design thinking. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 36(February), 100637. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2020.100637

Pangestu, D. A., Sulfemi, W. B., & Yusfitriadi. (2021). Philosophy of Freedom To Learn in the Perspective of Indonesia. Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Kebudayaan, 6(1), 78–92. https://doi.org/10.24832/jpnk.v6i1.1823

Parsons, T. (1990). Talcot Parsons dan pemikirannya: Sebuah pengantar. PT Tiara Wacana.

Pesce, C., & Ben-Soussan, T. D. (2016). “Cogito ergo sum” or “ambulo ergo sum”? New Perspectives in Developmental Exercise and Cognition Research. In Exercise-Cognition Interaction: Neuroscience Perspectives. Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800778-5.00012-8

Petchko, K. (2018). Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Purpose Statements. How to Write About Economics and Public Policy, 93–118. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-813010-0.00006-5

Petty, N. J., Thomson, O. P., & Stew, G. (2012). Ready for a paradigm shift? Part 2: Introducing qualitative research methodologies and methods. Manual Therapy, 17(5), 378–384. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2012.03.004

Polii, I. J., Muqit, A., Wuisang, J. R. R., & Wuisang, J. R. H. (2021). Implementation of Quick on the Draw Strategy in Learning to Understand Description Text Information. Society, 9(1), 140–150. https://doi.org/10.33019/society.v9i1.311

Portes, A. (2014). Downsides of social capital. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(52), 18407–18408. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1421888112

Rahim, A. (2021). Volume 18 Number 2 2021 of Islamic Identity through Sharia Discourse Masification. 18(2), 109–118.

Raho, B. (2021). Teori Sosiologi Modern. Penerbit Ledalero.

Reyes-Menendez, A., Saura, J. R., & Thomas, S. B. (2020). Exploring key indicators of social identity in the #MeToo era: Using discourse analysis in UGC. International Journal of Information Management, 54(July 2019), 102129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2020.102129

Rock, B. A. (1992). Problems With Paradigmatic Knowledge. Philosophical Constructs for the Chiropractic Profession, 2(4), 26–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2214-9163(13)60015-9

Rubinstein, A. (2012). Rational, Irrational. In Economic Fables (pp. 41–90). Open Book Publishers. https://doi.org/10.11647/OBP.0020.01

Savoia, P. (2015). Objectivity: Philosophical Aspects. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition (Second Edi, Vol. 16). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.63054-4

Schumacher, L. M., Kerrigan, S. G., Remmert, J. E., Call, C. C., Zhang, F., & Butryn, M. L. (2019). I think therefore I Am? Examining the relationship between exercise identity and exercise behavior during behavioral weight loss treatment. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 43(January), 123–127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2019.01.012

Shaev, Y. (2014). From the Sociology of Things to the “Internet of Things.” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 149, 874–878. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.08.266

Shanka, M. S., & Buvik, A. (2019). When Does Relational Exchange Matters? Social Bond, Trust and Satisfaction. Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, 26(1), 57–74. https://doi.org/10.1080/1051712X.2019.1565137

Sherkat, D. E. (2015). Religiosity. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition, 19, 377–380. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.84020-9

Siep, L., Hinst, P., & Andersson, G. (2017). Karl Raimund Popper. 439094, 183–186. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-476-04506-5_39

Smith, M. L. (2006). Overcoming theory-practice inconsistencies: Critical realism and information systems research. Information and Organization, 16(3), 191–211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infoandorg.2005.10.003

Squires, A. (2009). Methodological challenges in cross-language qualitative research: A research review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 46(2), 277–287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.08.006

Stump, D. (1991). Fallibilism, naturalism and the traditional requirements for knowledge. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 22(3), 451–469. https://doi.org/10.1016/0039-3681(91)90004-C

Suryawan, A. S., Hisano, S., & Jongerden, J. (2019). Negotiating halal: The role of non-religious concerns in shaping halal standards in Indonesia. Journal of Rural Studies, September, 0–1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2019.09.013

Sztompka, P. (2010). Sosiologi Perubahan Sosial. Prenada.

Thayer-Bacon, B. (2010). Classic Pragmatism. The International Encyclopedia of Education, 86–91.

Tuma, F., & Nassar, A. K. (2021). Applying Bloom’s taxonomy in clinical surgery: Practical examples. In Annals of Medicine and Surgery (Vol. 69). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2021.102656

Turner, J. H. (2015). Sociological Theory. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition (Second Edi, Vol. 23). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.32159-6

Turner, S. P. (2015). Weber, Max (1864-1920). International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition, 25, 456–461. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.61136-4

Urry, J. (2010). Mobile sociology. British Journal of Sociology, 61(SUPPL. 1), 347–366. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-4446.2009.01249.x

Vakalopoulos, C. (2005). A scientific paradigm for consciousness: A theory of premotor relations. Medical Hypotheses, 65(4), 766–784. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2005.04.016

Valentinov, V. (2008). On the origin of rules: Between exchange and self-sufficiency. Social Science Journal, 45(2), 345–351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soscij.2008.04.002

Van Assche, J., Koç, Y., & Roets, A. (2019). Religiosity or ideology? On the individual differences predictors of sexism. Personality and Individual Differences, 139(September 2018), 191–197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.11.016

Vidal, M. (2015). Marxism in Contemporary Sociology. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition (Second Edi, Vol. 14). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.32087-6

Viry, G. (2012). Residential mobility and the spatial dispersion of personal networks: Effects on social support. Social Networks, 34(1), 59–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2011.07.003

Vosgerau, G. (2006). The perceptual nature of mental models. In Advances in Psychology (Vol. 138, Issue 1). Elsevier Masson SAS. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4115(06)80039-7

Wang, Q. (2012). Reflections on achieving educational objectives of Bloom’s taxonomy in the simulated course for tour guides in Shanghai. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education, 11(2), 161–167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhlste.2012.05.002

Warczok, T., & Beyer, S. (2021). The logic of knowledge production: Power structures and symbolic divisions in the elite field of American sociology. Poetics, 87(March 2020), 101531. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.poetic.2021.101531

Xu, Y., Bright, C. L., Ahn, H., Huang, H., & Shaw, T. (2020). A new kinship typology and factors associated with receiving financial assistance in kinship care. Children and Youth Services Review, 110(January), 104822. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.104822

Yilmaz, O., & Bahçekapili, H. G. (2015). Without God, everything is permitted? The reciprocal influence of religious and meta-ethical beliefs. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 58, 95–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2015.01.003

Yilmaz, O., & Saribay, S. A. (2017). Activating analytic thinking enhances the value given to individualizing moral foundations. Cognition, 165, 88–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2017.05.009

Yu, C. Y., & Zhu, X. (2016). From attitude to action: What shapes attitude toward walking to/from school and how does it influence actual behaviors? Preventive Medicine, 90, 72–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.06.036

Zukerfeld, M. (2017). The Typology of Knowledge. Knowledge in the Age of Digital Capitalism: An Introduction to Cognitive Materialism, 53–97. https://doi.org/10.16997/book3.d

Copyright (c) 2023 Owned by the Author(s), published by Society

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Download data is not yet available.