Towards the Achievement of Papua’s Independence in the Framework of Statehood
Society Volume 11 Issue 2#2023
PDF (English)
PDF (Bahasa Indonesia)

Keywords

1933 Montevideo Convention;
Free Papua Organization (OPM);
Papua;
Responsibility to Protect (R2P);
Statehood

View Counter


  • Abstract viewed - 264 times
  • PDF (English) downloaded - 109 times
  • PDF (Bahasa Indonesia) downloaded - 52 times

Search in:

| |

How to Cite

Sarjito, A. (2023). Towards the Achievement of Papua’s Independence in the Framework of Statehood. Society, 11(2), 343-358. https://doi.org/10.33019/society.v11i2.542

Abstract

Since Indonesia gained independence in 1945, security dynamics have been intricately linked with conflict. The emergence of separatist movements, such as the Free Papua Movement or Free Papua Organization (Organisasi Papua Merdeka or OPM), has significantly disrupted Indonesia’s stability. This study aims to analyze the actions undertaken by OPM in their quest for independence, utilizing the perspective of the Montevideo Convention of 1933. Employing a qualitative descriptive research methodology, this research relies on secondary data from a literature review focused on the Papua region. The study reveals several key findings: The size and stability of a population are critical factors for the existence of a state. West Papua, with a population of 1.15 million, plays a pivotal role. The establishment of well-defined territories is crucial for distinguishing and representing nations. The proposed establishment of the Republic of West Papua has garnered support and recognition from nations like Vanuatu. Moreover, the Republic of West Papua actively engages in international organizations such as UNPO. Establishing and exercising effective government control over a nation’s territory is essential for asserting sovereignty and maintaining independence. This is exemplified by the Papua National Manifesto and the declaration of Papua’s independence in 1961. Building and maintaining relationships with other countries necessitate active participation in the global community. International recognition and support play pivotal roles in achieving long-term political goals. Challenges related to democracy, human rights, and environmental issues pose significant hurdles to Indonesia’s diplomatic relations. The Responsibility to Protect (R2P) principle offers a framework for preventing mass atrocities and holding state actors accountable for crimes against humanity. International cooperation and dialogue are imperative in addressing these complex issues and safeguarding the well-being of affected populations.

DOI : https://doi.org/10.33019/society.v11i2.542
PDF (English)
PDF (Bahasa Indonesia)

References

Al Rahab, A. (2010). Heboh Papua: Perang Rahasia. In Trauma dan Separatisme. Komunitas Bambu, Imparsial dan Foker LSM Papua.

Andrianto, T. T. (2001). Mengapa Papua bergolak. Gama Global Media.

Arikunto, S. (2010). Metode Peneltian. Rineka Cipta.

Bayuseno, A. B. B., & Windiani, R. (2020). Assessing the Consistency of Political Attitude and Position of Melanesian Countries on the Papua Issue in International Forums [Memahami Konsistensi Sikap Politik Negara-Negara Melanesia mengenai Isu Papua di Forum Internasional]. Jurnal Politica Dinamika Masalah Politik Dalam Negeri Dan Hubungan Internasional, 11(2), 203–222. https://doi.org/10.22212/jp.v11i2.1668

BBC News. (2009, March 13). Papua’s struggle for independence. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/mobile/world/asia-pacific/7942026.stm

BBC News Indonesia. (2018, December 13). Organisasi Papua Merdeka yang menuntut pemisahan Papua dari Indonesia, apa dan siapa mereka? https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/indonesia-46539502

Bellamy, A., & Dunne, T. (2016). “Introduction: R2P in Theory and Practice.” In The Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (pp. 3–17). Oxford University Press Oxford.

Detiknews.com. (2020, December 3). Benny Wenda Tak Diakui OPM, Begini Peta Kubu Separatis di Papua. https://news.detik.com/berita/d-5280012/benny-wenda-tak-diakui-opm-begini-peta-kubu-separatis-di-papua

Djopari, J. R. G. (1993). Pemberontakan Organisasi Papua Merdeka. Gramedia Widiasarana Indonesia.

Edele, M. (2021). Crimes Against Humanity. The Routledge History of the Second World War, 20(3), 625–638. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429455353-50

Egerton, F. (2012). What is Right with R2P? In The Routledge handbook of the responsibility to protect (pp. 77–84). Routledge.

Elyzabeth, A. (2006). Dimensi Internasional Kasus Papua. Jurnal Penelitian Politik LIPI, 3(1), 43–65.

Grant, T. D. (1999). Defining Statehood: The Montevideo Convention and its Discontents. Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 37(2), 403–404.

Hadi, S., & Bernada, Y. S. B. (2015). Kedudukan Daerah Khusus Provinsi Papua Dan Papua Barat Dalam Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia. Mimbar Keadilan, 278224. https://doi.org/10.30996/mk.v0i0.2119

Jackson, R. H., & Rosberg, C. G. (1982). Why Africa’s Weak States Persist: The Empirical and the Juridical in Statehood. World Politics, 35(1), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.2307/2010277

Jahamou, M., & Wiswayana, W. (2020). Music as A Weapon on Asymmetric War between FWPC (Free West Papua Campaign) Against Indonesia. Proceedings of the First Brawijaya International Conference on Social and Political Sciences, BSPACE. https://doi.org/10.4108/eai.26-11-2019.2295195

Katadata.co.id. (2021). Inilah 10 provinsi dengan penduduk berstatus cerai hidup terbanyak.

Koreri.com. (2021, March 8). Cari Perhatian Dunia, Ini 3 Modus OPM. https://koreri.com/2021/03/08/cari-perhatian-dunia-ini-3-modus-opm/

Lantang, F., & Tambunan, E. M. B. (2020). The internationalization of ⇜west papua⇝ issue and its impact on Indonesia’s policy to the south pacific region. Journal of ASEAN Studies, 8(1), 41–59. https://doi.org/10.21512/jas.v8i1.6447

Malo, Y. (2017). Organisasi Papua Merdeka Tahun 1960-1969 [Universitas Sanata Dharma]. https://repository.usd.ac.id/9140/2/094314006_full.pdf

Martadikusumah, T. A. A. (2019). Penggunaan Akun Facebook Free West Papua Campaign sebagai Media Propaganda Konflik Papua Barat. Program Studi Ilmu Hubungan Internasional Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu ….

Maskun, M., Manuputty, A., Awaludin, H., Rauf, A., Lihawa, I., & Noor, S. M. (2008). Hukum Internasional.

Nainggolan, P. P. (2014). International Activities of Papua Separatist Movement. Jurnal DPR RI, 19(3), 181–199.

Parsons, T. (1964). The theory of social and economic organization. Free Press.

Pepnews.com. (2018, December 11). Inilah Negara-negara Pendukung Pemberontak dan Terorisme Papua. https://pepnews.com/hankam/p-8154a448334791f/inilah-negara-negara-pendukung-pemberontak-dan-terorisme-papua

Putri, A. C. (2022). Strategi Organisasi Papua Merdeka Dalam Mendapatkan Dukungan Internasional Tahun 2016-2020. In Universitas Islam Indonesia (Vol. 33, Issue 1). Universitas Islam Indonesia.

Quan-Hoang, V., Anh-Vinh, L., Viet-Phuong, L., Phuong-Hanh, H., & Manh-Toan, H. (2020). Making social sciences more scientific: Literature review by structured data. MethodsX, 7, 100818. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2020.100818

Rumila, D. N., & Effendi, Y. (2020). Analisis Wacana Free West Papua Campaign pada Operasi Militer Indonesia dalam Konflik Nduga: Sebuah Tinjauan Kritis. Transformasi Global, 7(1), 27–42. https://doi.org/10.21776/ub.jtg.2020.007.01.2

Samad, M. Y., & Permatasari, D. A. (2021). Memahami Organisasi Free West Papua Campaign Melalui Kampanye Dukungan Terhadap United Liberation Movement for West Papua (ULMWP) Tergabung Dalam Melanesian Spearhead Group (MSG). Jurnal Kajian Ilmiah, 21(4), 401–412. https://doi.org/10.31599/jki.v21i4.781

Sari, P., & Palupi, D. A. (2023). Kajian Yuridis Tentang Eksistensi Organisasi Papua Merdeka (Opm) Dalam Perspektif Hukum Humaniter Internasional. Abstract of Undergraduate Research, Faculty of Law, Bung Hatta University, 14(1), 1–6. https://ejurnal.bunghatta.ac.id/index.php/JFH/article/view/22450/18207

Schabas, W. A. (2017). An introduction to the international criminal court: Fifth edition. In An Introduction to the International Criminal Court: Fifth Edition. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316459997

Sugandi, Y. (2008). Analisis Konflik dan Rekomendasi Kebijakan Mengenai Papua. In Friedrich Ebert Stiftung. Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung.

Sugiyanto, M. N. (2017). Organisasi Papua Merdeka (OPM) dalam Perspektif Subjek Hukum Internasional. Universitas Hasanuddin.

Sukmalalana, S., Ramadhan, F., Pidhegso, A. Y., Huda, F. N., & Fadli, S. D. (2020). Akuntabilitas Dana Otonomi Khusus Provinsi Papua dan Papua Barat. Pusat Kajian Akuntabilitas Keuangan Negara Badan Keahlian DPR RI.

Surya.co.id. (2021, February 9). Mengenal OPM yang Kini Terpecah Belah Jadi 3 Sayap dan Bersaing, KKB Papua yang Sering Bikin Onar. https://surabaya.tribunnews.com/2021/03/09/mengenal-opm-yang-kini-terpecah-belah-jadi-3-sayap-dan-bersaing-kkb-papua-yang-sering-bikin-onar

Temaluru, T. B. P. (2016). Kepentingan Vanuatu Dalam Usaha Pemerdekaan Papua. Jurnal Analisis Hubungan Internasional, 5(2), 572–583.

Thakur, R., & Weiss, T. G. (2009). R2P: from idea to norm-and action. Global Resp. Protect, 1, 22.

The Diplomat. (2021, May 14). In Papua Fighting, Indonesian Forces Claim Rebel Commander Killed The reports follows Indonesian government promises of a crackdown on separatist fighters in the eastern region. https://thediplomat.com/2021/05/in-papua-fighting-indonesian-forces-claim-rebel-commander-killed/

Ulfa, G. S., & Fatchiya, A. (2018). Efektivitas instagram “Earth Hour Bogor” sebagai media kampanye lingkungan. Jurnal Komunikasi Pembangunan, 16(1), 144–157.

Welsh, J. (2009). Implementing the Responsibility to Protect. Oxford Institute for Ethics, Law, and Armed conflict.

Zed, M. (2008). Metode penelitian kepustakaan. Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia.

Copyright (c) 2023 Owned by the Author(s), published by Society

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.